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Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
Pulmonary Trunk
Left Atrium
Left Ventricle
Coronary Arteries
Cardiac Veins
External Images
MRI Images
Comparative Imaging
3D Modeling
Anatomy Tutorial
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Tutorial
Comparative Anatomy Tutorial
Conduction System Tutorial
Congenital Defects Tutorial
Coronary System Tutorial
Device Tutorial
Echocardiography Tutorial
Physiology Tutorial
Project Methodologies
Cardiovascular Devices and Techniques at U of Minnesota
References and Links
Atlas in the media
Surgery Department
University of Minnesota Cardiovascular History
Introduction 1951-56 1957-58 1960-90s 2000s Summary and References


The University of Minnesota has a rich tradition of research and development in the fields of cardiovascular science and medical device design. Today, Minnesota has one of the highest densities of medical device companies in the world, and thus the University remains uniquely positioned to: 1) educate the next generation of employees for this industry; 2) be a strong academic collaborator with industry by being an international leader in both basic and clinical cardiovascular research; and 3) serve the additional outreach mission of the University relative to cardiovascular sciences. The rich legacy of the early pioneers in cardiovascular research, medicine, and surgery lives on at the University of Minnesota.


  1. Lillehei CW (1994) The birth of open heart surgery: then the golden years. Cardiovasc Surg 2:308-317.
  2. Website:
  3. Lillehei CW (1982) A personalized history of extracorporeal circulation. Trans Am Soc Artif Internal Organs 28:5-16.
  4. Lillehei CW et al (1986) The first open heart repairs of ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular communis, and Tetralogy of Fallot using extracorporeal circulation by cross-circulation. Ann Thorac Surg 41:4-21.
  5. Moller JH, Shumway SJ, Gott VL (2009) The first open-heart repairs using extracorporeal circulation by cross-circulation: a 53-year follow-up. Ann Thorac Surg 88:1044-1046.
  6. Moore M (Winter 1992) The genesis of Minnesota's Medical Alley. UMN Medical Foundation Bulletin.
  7. Gott VL (2007) Critical role of physiologist John A. Johnson in the origins of Minnesota's billion dollar pacemaker industry. Ann Thorac Surg 83:349-353.
  8. Rhees D, Jeffrey K (2000) Earl Bakken's little white box: the complex meanings of the first transistorized pacemaker. In: Finn B (ed) Exposing electronics. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam.
  9. DeWall R (2000) Evolution of mechanical heart valves. Ann Thoracic Surg 69:1612-1621.
  10. Villafana M (1989) It will never work! The St. Jude valve. Ann Thorac Surg 48:S53-54. Historical Society Oral History Office, David Rhees (Interviewer).
  11. Website:
  12. Website:
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