University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Make a Gift
Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
Pulmonary Trunk
Left Atrium
Left Ventricle
Coronary Arteries
Cardiac Veins
External Images
MRI Images
Comparative Imaging
3D Modeling
Anatomy Tutorial
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Tutorial
Comparative Anatomy Tutorial
Conduction System Tutorial
Congenital Defects Tutorial
Coronary System Tutorial
Device Tutorial
Echocardiography Tutorial
Physiology Tutorial
Project Methodologies
Cardiovascular Devices and Techniques at U of Minnesota
References and Links
Atlas in the media
Surgery Department
References and Links
References Links


Iaizzo PA (Editor). The Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices, 2nd edition. Humana Press Inc., New York, NY 2009.

Sigg DS, Iaizzo PA, Xiao Y-F, He B (Editors), Cardiac Electrophysiology Methods and Models, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, New York, NY, 2010.

Iaizzo PA, Bianco RW, Hill AJ, St. Louis JD (Editors). Heart Valves: From Design to Clinical Implantation, Springer Science + Media, New York NY 2013.

Iaizzo PA (Editor). The Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices, 3rd edition. Springer, New York, NY 2015.


Original Articles

Langendorff, O. Untersuchungen am überlebenden Säugethierherzen. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 61, 291 (1895)Döring, HJ,

Dehnert H. The Isolated Perfused Warm-Blooded Heart according to Langendorff. Methods in Experimental Physiology and Pharmacology: Biological Measurement Techniques V. Biomesstechnik-Verlag March GmbH, West Germany. 1988.

Chinchoy E, Soule CL, Houlton AJ, Gallagher WJ, Hjelle MA, Laske TG, Morissett J, Iaizzo PA: Isolated four-chamber working swine heart model. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 70: 1607-1614, 2000.

Hill A, Coles JA Jr, Sigg DC, Laske, TG, Iaizzo PA: Images of the human coronary sinus ostium obtained from isolated working hearts. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 76: 2108, 2003.

Hill AJ, Laske TG, Coles JA Jr, Sigg DC, Skadsberg ND, Vincent SA, Soule CL, Gallagher WJ, Iaizzo PA: In vitro studies of human hearts. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 79: 168-177, 2005.

Coles JA Jr, Sigg DC, Iaizzo PA: The potential benefits of 1.5% hetastarch as a cardioplegia additive. Biochemical Pharmacology 69: 1553-1558, 2005.

Laske TG, Vincent SA, Skadsberg ND, Iaizzo PA: High pacing impedances: Are you overtorquing your leads? Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 28: 883-891, 2005.

Laske TG, Skadsberg ND, Iaizzo PA: A novel ex vivo heart model for the assessment of cardiac pacing systems. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 127:894-898, 2005.

Hill AJ, Ahlberg SE, Wilkoff BL, Iaizzo PA: Dynamic obstruction to coronary sinus access: the Thebesian valve. Heart Rhythm 3:1240-1, 2006.

Sigg DC, Iaizzo PA: In vivo versus in vitro comparison of swine cardiac performance: Induction of cardiodepression with halothane. European Journal of Pharmacology, 543:97-107, 2006.

Laske TG, Skadsberg ND, Hill AJ, Klein GJ, Iaizzo PA: Excitation of the intrinsic conduction system through His and intraventricular septal pacing. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 29:397-405, 2006

Anderson SE, Skadsberg ND, Laske TG, Benditt DG, Iaizzo PA: Variation in pacing impedance: impact of implant site and measurement method. PACE, 30:1076-82, 2007.

Anderson SE, Hill AJ, Iaizzo PA: Venous valves: unseen obstruction to coronary sinus. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, 19:165-6, 2007.

Quill JL, Laske TG, Hill AJ, Bonhoeffer P, Iaizzo PA: Direct visualization of a transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation within the Visible Heart® - A Glimpse into the Future. Circulation, 116(22): 2007.

Hucker W, McCain ML, Laughner JI, Iaizzo PI, Efimov IR: Connexin 43 expression delineates two discrete pathways in the human atrioventricular junction. Anatomical Record (in press) 2007.

Lü, F, Iaizzo PA, Benditt DG, Mehra R, Warman EN, McHenry BT: Isolated atrial segment pacing: an alternative to His bundle pacing after atrioventricular junctional ablation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 49:1443-9, 2007.

Iaizzo PA, Hill AJ, Laske TG: Cardiac device testing enhanced by simultaneous imaging modalities: the Visible Heart®, fluoroscopy, and echocardiography. Expert Review of Medical Devices 5:51-8, 2008.

Anderson SE, Quill JL, Iaizzo PA: Venous valves within left ventricular coronary veins. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 23(2):95-9, 2008.

Love CJ, Ahlberg SE, Hiniduma-Lokuge P, Brabec S, Iaizzo PA: Novel visualization of intracardiac pacing lead extractions: methodologies performed within isolated canine hearts. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 24: 27-31, 2009.

Quill JL, Hill AJ, Laske TG, Alfieri O, Iaizzo PA: Mitral leaflet anatomy revisited. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 137(5):1077-81, 2009.

Iaizzo PA: The functional anatomy of human cardiac valves and unique visualization of transcatheter-delivered valves being deployed. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 2009:1098-9, 2009.

Eggen M.D., Bateman MG, Rolfes CD, Howard SA, Swingen CM, Iaizzo PA: MRI assessment of pacing induced ventricular dyssynchrony in an isolated human heart. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 31:466-9, 2010.

Bateman M, Iaizzo PA: Comparative imaging of cardiac structures and function for the optimization of transcatheter approaches for valvular and structural heart disease. International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 27:1223-1234, 2011. PMID: 21541775

Quill JL, Hill AJ, Menk AR, McHenry BT, Iaizzo PA: Multimodal imaging of a transcatheter aortic valve implantation within an isolated heart. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging 4:1138-1139, 2011. PMID: 21999874

Eggen M, Swingen CM, Iaizzo PA: Ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI of human hearts: relative effects of specimen decomposition. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 67:1703-1709, 2012. PMID: 22114027

Rolfes CD, Howard SA, Goff RP, Iaizzo PA: Cardiac remodeling as a consequence of atrial fibrillation: An anatomical study of perfusion-fixed human heart specimens. Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 8:141-146, 2011. PMID: 22783300

Eggum JH, Howard SA, Goff RP, Iaizzo PA: Imaging of a coronary artery stent implantation within an isolated human heart. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 5:73-74, 2012. PMID: 22012333

Bandschapp O, Goff R, Mallin G, Loushin M, Iaizzo PA: The path of a pulmonary artery catheter visualized through a beating human heart. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 186:385, 2012. PMID: 22896593

Tsang W, Bateman MG, Weinert L, Pellegrini G, Mor-Avi V, Sugeng L, Yeung H, Patel A, Hill AJ, Iaizzo PA, Lang RM: Accuracy of aortic annular measurements obtained from three-dimensional echocardiography, CT and MRI: human in vitro and in vivo studies. Heart 98:1146-1152, 2012. PMID: 22773684

Bateman MG, Iaizzo PA: Imaging in the context of replacement heart valve development: use of the Visible Heart® methodologies. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy 2:220-230, 2012. DOI: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-3652.2012.07.01.

Howard SA, Bateman MG, Hill AJ, Anderson RH, Iaizzo PA: In vitro images of a double orifice mitral valve in a reanimated human heart. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 95:1456, 2013. PMID: 23522216

Bateman MG, Quill JL, Hill AJ, Iaizzo PA: The clinical anatomy and pathology of the human atrioventricular valves: implications for repair or replacement. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, Special Issue on Cardiac Anatomy 6:155-165, 2013. PMID: 23338038

Bateman MG, Quill JL, Hill AJ, Iaizzo PA: The clinical anatomy and pathology of the human arterial valves: implications for repair or replacement. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, Special Issue on Cardiac Anatomy 6:166-175, 2013. PMID: 23325456

Spencer JH, Anderson SE, Iaizzo PA: Human coronary venous anatomy: implications for interventions. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, Special Issue on Cardiac Anatomy 6:208-217, 2013. PMID: 23307201

Howard SA, Quill JL, Eggen MD, Swingen CM, Iaizzo PA: Novel imaging of atrial septal defects in isolated human hearts. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, Special Issue on Cardiac Anatomy 6:218-220, 2013. PMID: 23413124

Spencer J, Fitch E, Iaizzo PA: Anatomical reconstructions of the human cardiac venous system using contrast-computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens. Journal of Visualized Experiments 74, doi: 10.3791/50258, 2013. PMID: 23629052

Spencer JH, Quill JL, Bateman MG, Eggen MD, Howard SA, Goff RP, Howard BT, Quallich SG, Iaizzo PA: The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices. Expert Review of Medical Devices 10:729-34, 2013. PMID: 24195457

Spencer JH, Larson AA, Drake R, Iaizzo PA: A detailed assessment of the human coronary venous system using contrast computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens. Heart Rhythm 11:282-8, 2014. PMID: 24144884

Eggen MD, Bonner MD, Williams ER, Iaizzo PA: Multimodal imaging of a transcatheter pacemaker implantation within a reanimated human heart. Heart Rhythm (images) 11:2331-2, 2014. PMID: 24732365

Spencer JH, Sundaram CC, Iaizzo PA: The relative anatomy of the coronary arterial and venous systems: implications for coronary interventions. Clinical Anatomy 27:1023-9, 2014. PMID: 24860940

Spencer JH, Prahl G, Iaizzo PA: The prevalence of coronary sinus and left circumflex artery overlap in relation to the mitral valve. Journal of Interventional Cardiology, 27:308-16, 2014. PMID: 24617351

Quallich SG, Van Heel M, Iaizzo PA: Optimal contact forces to minimize cardiac perforations before, during and/or following radiofrequency or cryo- ablations. Heart Rhythm 12:291-6, 2015. PMID: 25461502

Howard SA, Quallich SG, Benscoter MA, Holmgren BC, Rolfes CD, Iaizzo PA: Tissue properties of the fossa ovalis as they relate to transseptal punctures: a translational approach. Journal of Interventional Cardiology 28:98-108, 2015. PMID: 25689553

Zhongping Y, Eggen MD, Marquardt KR, Aselson AJ, McVenes RD, Iaizzo PA: Direct visualization of an atrial transseptal left ventricular endocardial lead implantation within an isolated heart. Heart Rhythm Case Reports 1:107-109, 2015.

Spencer JH, Goff RP, Iaizzo PA: Left phrenic nerve anatomy relative to the coronary venous system: implications for phrenic nerve stimulation during cardiac resynchronization therapy. Clinical Anatomy 28:621-626, 2015. PMID: 25851773

Burzotta F, Cook B, Iaizzo PA, Singh J, Louvard Y, Latib A: Coronary bifurcations as you have never seen them: the Visible Heart® Laboratory bifurcation programme. EuroIntervention 11 Suppl V:V1-5, 2015. DOI: 4244/EIJV11SVA9

Goff RP, Spencer JH, Iaizzo PA: MRI reconstructions of human phrenic nerve anatomy and computational modeling of cryoballoon ablative therapy. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 44:1097-1106, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s10439-015-1379-3

Quallich SG, Goff RP, Iaizzo PA: Direct visualization of induced steam pops during radiofrequency ablation. Heart Rhythm Case Reports 1:264-5, Open access article published April 8, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrcr.2015.02.012.

Howard SA, Goff RP, Benditt DG, Iaizzo PA: Direct visualization of an iatrogenic septal defect in a reanimated human heart. Heart Rhythm Case Reports l:509-10, Open Access article published September 21, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrcr.2015.08.011

Benscoter MA, Iaizzo PA: Visualization of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: impact of devices and anatomy. World Journal of Cardiology 7:754-764, 2015. DOI: 10.4330/wjc.v7.i11.754.

Benscoter MA, Avitall B, Iaizzo PA: Visualization of an innovative approach for mitral isthmus ablation. Journal of Integrative Cardiology (Open access, 2015). DOI: 10.15761/JIC.1000139.

Quallich SG, Kriege KE, Iaizzo, PA: The effects of radiofrequency or cryothermal ablation on biomechanical properties of isolated human or swine cardiac tissues. Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine 4:1-5, 2015. DOI: 10.1109/JTEHM.2015.2506160.

Omdahl P, Eggen MD, Bonner MD, Wika K, Iaizzo PA: Right ventricular anatomy can accommodate multiple transcatheter pacemakers. Pacing & Clinical Electrophysiology (December 2015) [Epub ahead of print]. DOI: 10.1111/pace.12804.

Goff RP, Howard BT, Quallich SG, Iles TL, Iaizzo PA: The novel in vitro reanimation of isolated human and large mammalian heart-lung blocs. BMC Physiology 16:4, 2016. DOI: 10.1186/s12899-016-0023-2.

Iaizzo PA: The Visible Heart® Project and free-access website. Europace (in press, 2017).



US 7,045,279: Isolated perfused heart preparation and method for use: Laske TG, Iaizzo PA , Hjelle MA, Morissette J, Wahlstrom DA, Issued May 16, 2006

© 2021 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Privacy Statement