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Location:
The left anterior descending (LAD, interventricular) artery appears to be a direct continuation of the left coronary artery which descends into the anterior interventricular groove. Branches of this artery, anterior septal perforating arteries, enter the septal myocardium to supply the anterior two-thirds of the interventricular septum (in ~90% of hearts).

Function:
In general, the LAD artery and its branches supply most of the interventricular septum; the anterior, lateral, and apical wall of the left ventricle, most of the right and left bundle branches, and the anterior papillary muscle of the bicuspid valve (left ventricle). It also provides collateral circulation to the anterior right ventricle, the posterior part of the interventricular septum, and the posterior descending artery.

Importance in cardiovascular diseases:
The LAD artery is the most commonly occluded of the coronary arteries. It provides the major blood supply to the interventricular septum, and thus bundle branches of the conducting system. Hence, blockage of this artery due to coronary artery disease can lead to impairment or death (infarction) of the conducting system. The result is a "block" of impulse conduction between the atria and the ventricles known as "right/left bundle branch block."

 

 

 

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