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Introduction Normal Cardiac Development Fetal and Postnatal Circulation Septal Defects Right Heart Lesions Left Heart Lesions Anomalies of Arteries and Veins Cardiac Transplantation References


  • Abdulla R, Blew GA, and Holterman MJ (2004) Cardiovascular embryology. Pediatric Cardiology, 25, 191-200. doi: 10.1007/s00246-003-0585-1.
  • American Heart Association (2013). Congenital cardiovascular defects [Statistical fact sheet]. (Accessed 12/29/15).
  • Anderson RH, Brown NA, Mohun TJ, and Moorman AFM (2013). Insights from cardiac development relevant to congenital defects and adult clinical anatomy. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 6, 107-117. doi: 10.1007/s12265-012-940-3.
  • Ashworth MT (2013). Embryology of the heart. In: Suvarna S (Ed), Cardiac Pathology, 4th ed. (pp. 109-115). Springer, London. doi: 10.1007/978/1-4471-2407-8_6.
  • Christoffels VM and Moorman FM (2009). Basic science for the clinical electrophysiologist. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 2, 195-207. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.108.829341.
  • Everett AD and Lim DS (Eds) (2010). Illustrated Field Guide to Congenital Heart Disease and Repair, 3rd ed. Scientific Software Solutions, Inc., Charlottesville, VA.
  • Hoffman JI and Kaplan S (2002). The incidence of congenital heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 39, 1890-1900.
  • Martinsen BJ, Lohr JL (2015). Cardiac development. In: Iaizzo PA (Ed), Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology and Devices, 3rd ed. Springer, New York.
  • Mavroudis C and Backer CL (Eds) (1994). Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, 2nd ed. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Schoenwolf GC Bleyl SB, Brauer PR, and Francis-West PH (2009). Development of the heart. In: Schoenwolf GC and Bleyl SB (Eds), Larsen’s Human Embryology, 4th ed. (pp. 337-384). Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier Inc.
  • Schoenwolf GC Bleyl SB, Brauer PR, and Francis-West PH (2009). Development of the vasculature. In: Schoenwolf GC and Bleyl SB (Eds), Larsen’s Human Embryology, 4th ed. (pp. 385-433). Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier Inc.
  • van der Linde D, Konings EEM, Slager MA, Witsenburg M, Helbing WA, Takkenberg JJM and Roos-Hesselink JW (2011). Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 58, 241-247. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.08.025.
  • Du ZD, Hijazi ZM, Kleinman CS, Silverman NH, Larntz K (Amplatzer Investigators) (2002). Comparison between transcatheter and surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defect in children and adults: results of a multicenter nonrandomized trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 39, 1836-1844.
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