Venograms were obtained in functional and perfusion-fixed specimens by placing a venogram balloon catheter in the coronary sinus. Once placed, the balloon at the distal tip was inflated and contrast was injected through the lumen of the catheter into the coronary venous system. A map of the coronary veins can be seen on fluoroscopy. A blue-dyed contrast solution was used with the perfusion-fixed specimens so that the veins could also be visualized from the epicardial surface.
The movie below shows a venogram in an isolated heart. The movie shows a catheter cannulating the coronary sinus ostium, then switches to a fluoroscopic
view of the heart, where the coronary veins become opaque as a contrast agent is injected.