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Minnesota black bears mate in June. Male black bears will fight each other for a female bear; older male black bears typically have scars across their noses and faces from fighting for a mate.
Several months after mating, the blastocyst is implanted into the uterine wall of the female. The gestation period for black bears is approximately 2.5 months, from November to mid-January. Female bears will briefly wake up from hibernation to give birth in January and then resume hibernation; the cubs will not hibernate but will continue to den with their mothers and feed from them.
Females can have up to six cubs at a time, but generally they have one to three. Cubs den with their mothers until they are yearlings.